vORG map - 2
All workplaces have to comply with labour market laws. Laws are decided upon by the Riksdag, Swedish parliament. There are laws applicable to the workplace which control issues such as the work environment, holidays and entitlement to employment.
Different types of employment
There are different types of employment:
- Permanent employment means that people work at the workplace with no time limit.
- Employment on an hourly basis and temporary employment mean that people work temporarily when the employer needs staff.
- Substitution involves people working temporarily because another employee is off work.
- Trial employment allows an employer to try out an employee for a maximum of six months. This also means that the employee has the opportunity to try a new job.
Some jobs offer full-time employment. This means that employees work around 40 hours a week. Some jobs offer part-time employment, where employees work less than 40 hours a week, e.g. 20 hours a week.
When you find a job, you have to sign an employment contract. This contract should state - among other things - the employer's name and address and the employee's tasks and form of employment, e.g. permanent employment or temporary employment. The salary to be received must also be stated. The employer and employee must abide by what the employment contract states. The Public Employment Service website has a checklist for employment contracts.
Salaries are often paid at the end of every month. When you receive a salary, you're entitled to receive a salary statement which states how much salary you're receiving and how much tax has been paid by your employer. The salary statement also indicates the date on which your salary is to be paid.
A trade union is an organisation for people working in a specific field. Trade unions monitor workplaces to ensure that they're complying with laws and contracts, and they help their members with issues relating to working conditions. Most large workplaces have people who represent different trade unions. There are different trade unions for different professions. You can ask at work which trade unions are represented there.
You can make your own decision on whether you want to be a member of a trade union. If you do want to be a member, you pay a monthly fee for this.
If you're a member of the trade union, you also have the opportunity to get help when you want to negotiate your salary or need advice on what demands you can make of your work environment.
A collective agreement is a written agreement between employers and trade unions. The agreement determines the structure of the working conditions for people working at a site, such as how high salaries are to be or how long working days are to be. Not all places of work have collective agreements. Even if you're not a member of a trade union, you're entitled to the same protection which trade union members have.
Everyone who works pays tax
Tax amounts to around 30 % of your salary. The employer pays your tax, deducting it directly from your salary. When you start a new job, your employer will usually ask you for your tax assessment certificate. A tax assessment certificate shows how much tax you have to pay from your salary. You can order this certificate from the Swedish Tax Agency. It's a good idea to check that you're paying the right amount of tax. If you pay too little tax, you have to pay the shortfall when your tax return is submitted the following year.
Working without declaring tax
Some employers offer jobs which aren't legal. This means they don't pay social security contributions to the state, and no tax is deducted from salaries. Anyone working like this won't be insured and won't be entitled to any compensation if an accident happens in the workplace, for example. Nor will they be entitled to sick pay if they're off sick, and no money will be paid into their future pension. It's also hard to use illegal work as valid experience or reference when looking for other jobs.